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She worked there first as a post-doc, then three years later as a regular faculty member, becoming the first woman on the permanent staff. While at the Carnegie, where in she became the Crawford H. Greenewalt Chair and Director of Observatories, Freedman worked on refining estimates of the size and age of the universe based on improved observations of Cepheid variable stars. The known relation between the periodicity of the rotation and the brightness of these stars has long been one of the main tools astronomers use to calculate intergalactic distances.

For the past fifteen years or so, Freedman has been involved with another international team planning and building the next generation of earth-based, optical telescopes, the Giant Magellan Telescope GMT. With seven segments collectively equivalent to an ft.

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Freese was born in Freiburg, Germany West Germany, at the time. Subsequently, she moved to the University of Michigan, where she is currently George E. Uhlenbeck Professor of Physics. Finally, Freese has also worked on improving the inflationary version of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe. Her proposal, known as natural inflation, is a theoretically well-motivated idea that uses axion-like particles to provide the required flat potentials to drive the cosmic expansion.

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Geller was born in Ithaca, New York. After post-docs at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, she returned to Harvard, where she served as an Assistant Professor of Astronomy from until She then moved to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory a partner in the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics , where she has worked ever since as a member of the permanent scientific staff. In order to help promote public interest in astronomy and physics, Geller lectures frequently all around the world, and has made a number of educational short films and videos.

Her particular field of expertise is the large-scale structure of the universe, and her best-known scientific achievement is the creation of pioneering maps of galaxy clusters and other super-galactic structures. One such effort, the Second Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey CfA2 conducted in by a team of American astronomers headed up by Geller and John Huchra, led to the discovery of the Great Wall, an enormous filament of galaxies that is one of the largest known material objects in the universe.

Gianotti was born in Rome.

She received her PhD in experimental particle physics in from the University of Milan. After graduation, she occupied a number of post-doc positions. Gianotti has worked at CERN ever since. Gianotti has been involved with many important experiments at CERN over the years, but she is no doubt best known for her work as project leader of one of the two teams at CERN which undertook the search for the Higgs boson, beginning in The team she led in preparing, running, and analyzing the experiment on the Large Hadron Collider comprised some physicists from thirty-eight different countries.

In July of , it fell to Gianotti to make the announcement to the world that the Higgs boson had indeed been detected. Greider was born in San Diego, California, and raised mostly in Davis where her father was a physics professor.

Groundbreaking Women in Science

Greider obtained her PhD in molecular biology in from University of California—Berkeley, where she worked under Elizabeth Blackburn see above on this list. Working with the fresh-water protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a model organism, Greider obtained the first results indicating that the enzyme now known as telomerase might be the molecule they were seeking on Christmas Day of Many years later in , the grad student and her adviser shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Jack W.

Szostak, who had been working along similar lines independently. She also became involved in efforts to develop new technologies based on her discoveries, notably by joining the Scientific Advisory Board of Geron Corporation. Hau was born in the small city of Velje in Denmark. While working on her dissertation on using silicon crystals as electrical conductors , she did research for seven months at CERN near Geneva. After graduating in , she joined the Rowlands Institute for Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as a scientific staff member.

However, she is best known for her pathbreaking work on slow light. In , she and her team at Harvard used a BEC to slow a beam of light down to seventeen meters per second. Two years later, they succeeded in stopping light in its tracks. In her more recent work, Hau has been exploring novel interactions between ultracold atoms, slow light, and nanoscale systems. Her new work is thought to have great potential to revolutionize a number of different fields, from energy photovoltaic cells, synthetic biofuels to advanced forms of astronomical instrumentation to quantum computing.

With her family, she emigrated to Israel in After teaching for several years in the Biology Department at Tel Aviv University, Jablonka moved to the Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas there, where she is currently a Professor and lectures mainly on the history and philosophical foundations of biology. In the years since, she has had numerous visiting professorships, including at Bielefeld University in Germany and University of California—Berkeley in the US. Jablonka is mainly known for her pathbreaking work on the integration of epigenetics AKA Lamarckian inheritance and evolutionary theory.

The author or co-author of more than fifty peer-reviewed papers, Jablonka has co-authored three influential textbooks: with Marion J. Al-Kharafi was born in Kuwait. While still in graduate school, she helped organize the new Corrosion and Electrochemistry Research Laboratory at Kuwait University. From until , she served as Dean of the Faculty of Science. In , she was appointed Rector an office later known as President of Kuwait University, to help reconstruct the university in the aftermath of the trauma of the First Gulf War — The first woman to lead a major university in the Middle East, al-Kharafi remained in the post of President until In her scientific work, al-Kharafi was primarily engaged in the study of corrosion in various technological systems, including engine cooling systems, distillation units for crude oil, and high temperature geothermal brines.

She also worked on the electrochemical behavior of a wide variety of metals and metal alloys, from aluminum to vanadium to cadmium to low-carbon steel. Moreover, she collaborated in the discovery of a new class of molybdenum-based catalysts, which can be used to enhance the octane rating of gasoline without the use of undesirable benzene by-products. King was born in Evanston, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. After a post-doc at University of California—San Francisco, King joined the University of California—Berkeley faculty as a professor of genetics and epidemiology, a position she held from until , when she moved to the University of Washington.

In , while still at Berkeley, she discovered that a single gene on chromosome seventeen later called BRCA-1 plays an important role in many types of breast cancer. In the intervening years, King has branched out considerably, working on the genetics of other conditions, such as deafness, but also on projects such as using genetics to help identify the remains of those killed in civil conflicts in Argentina, El Salvador, and elsewhere, as well as to reconstruct prehistoric human migration patterns.

Most influential women in British science history

Klein was born in Wilmington, Delaware. Upon graduating in , she joined the School of Engineering at Rutgers University, receiving tenure there in the first woman to do so. Sol-gel processing methods refined by her have been applied to the development of a host of new devices, including ceramic membranes, solid electrolytes, fuel cell components, and planar waveguides. These are ceramic coatings that can be lightened or darkened through the use of a manually controlled dimmer attached to a battery.

Reflecting away heat while still transmitting light in summer, as well as permitting solar heating in winter, such coatings are more versatile and efficient than traditional blinds and tintings, thus saving on heating and cooling costs.

Klinman was born in Philadelphia. Klinman stayed on as a permanent scientific staff member of the Institute for Cancer Research, where she worked for many years, before moving to University of California—Berkeley in In her early work, she developed kinetic isotope effects for use as an experimental probe for studying the extremely rapid individual steps involved in enzyme action. She applied to the Mathematics Department at Princeton University for graduate school, but they were still not accepting female graduate students at the time.

She was accepted by Berkeley, but Liskov chose instead to go to work for the Mitre Corporation, a not-for-profit, research-and-development government contractor based in the Boston area. It was at Mitre that Liskov became interested in the still-infant field of computer programming. After a year, she moved to Harvard, where she worked on the problem of automated natural language translation.

In April of , the year-old Luu fled South Vietnam with her family. After some time first in a refugee camp, then with relatives living in Paducah, Kentucky, the family finally settled in Ventura, California, where Luu attended high school. When Jewitt moved to the University of Hawaii in , Luu went along in order to continue working with him, while remaining an MIT student. Upon graduation in , Luu took up a Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, which enabled her to continue to travel to Hawaii in order to make use of the 2.

It was there in that she and Jewitt made the discovery for which each remains best known: the Kuiper Belt, a vast disc of small, icy bodies orbiting the sun beyond Neptune. Luu has continued to work on characterizing a great many new Kuiper Belt objects over the intervening years. In recognition of her revolutionary discoveries regarding the outer reaches of our solar system, in Luu was awarded two of the most prestigious prizes in her field: the Shaw Prize and the Kavli Prize in Astrophysics.

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Mayer was born in Wausau, Wisconsin. For both degrees, she specialized in artificial intelligence AI , including developing a travel advice software system with a natural language user interface. Next, she turned down an offer to teach at Carnegie Mellon University in order to join the then-new Google company as employee number twenty. Mayer holds several patents in artificial intelligence and interface design.

50 Top Women in STEM | rilhacomplisym.tk

Mayer resigned from Yahoo! Miller was home-schooled in the small town of Niskayuna, near Schenectady in upstate New York. She continues to work on algebraic number theory, arithmetic invariant theory, and their connections with classical knot invariants.